What is Working Capital?


Working capital is an important source by which the company can get the financial report by subtracting the current liabilities from current assets. It is a signal of the short-term financial position of an organization to oversee efficiency. As we know that WC comes from subtracting the current liabilities from current assets. The Working Capital depends on operating activities that cover accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable, short-term debts, suppliers, when due. It shows the company can be liable to pay short-term debts without selling inventories, it means paying debts without creating imbalances in the business operations. It covers all the activities that happen in the business positively and from them, the company can get out a good WC that is used in further activities.

Working capital finance

Working capital runs the day-to-day activities of the business to get maximum profits but financing is also considered to improve WC so that companies can invest more in daily operating activities for outer projects to increase sales volume. If a company will have more assets so they can generate more sales and if a company will have less available assets so they can generate fewer sales, sales also affect more impact on WC. 

Under finance, lending is the most considerable option for long-term financing that helps companies to meet their big projects. These projects require a big investment which means good WC so the company can go through the lenders for getting money on interest. The other method to raise funds for investment is equity funding, in which a company sells its shares, it is also a good way to collect funds for investing in assets so that company can take out good working capital.

Working capital accounting

The WC role defines the money required to meet operating expenses and other expenses that help to evaluate the financial performance of the company after calculating the difference between current assets and current liabilities.

The role of WC in accounting defines according to the such as:

  • Current assets should be liquid assets for less WC required.
  • Non-current assets require more WC.
  • For instant payment of selling inventories and assets, less WC is required and for long time payment of selling assets, more WC is required.
  • Less WC is required for getting payments from customers within 30 days instead of 60 days but if customers do not make payments within the given time, it requires more WC.

What is the requirement of working capital?

The requirements of working capital depend on the business activities that are streaming to get business value and increase proficiency. The WC requirements depend on various activities which are necessary to do by adopting the latest technologies and financial facilities such as:

  • Long-term and Short-term facilities are provided by the financial world to maintain the business.
  • Maintain the turnover of current assets to increase sales by adopting sales strategies.
  • Convert assets into cash within a financial year by doing operating activities.
  • It depends on the nature of the business.
  • Extending the paid time for the customers, will help to increase sales volume and chances to get more customers.
  • As a company owner, you have fewer inventories but more sales, you will require only less WC. On the other hand, if you have more inventories but fewer sales, you will require more WC.
  • The method of acquiring labor-intensive techniques for more productivity is the best requirement of working capital.
  • With the working capital turnover ratio, a company can measure the WC that is taken by the difference of current assets and current liabilities.

Why do companies need to make adjustments to working capital?

The company needs to make adjustments to working capital according to their requirement. As we know that working capital fulfills the empty place of money that requires in the daily business operations and operating activities of the company such as:

  • Generate revenue by doing more sales
  • Maintain assets against short-term debts
  • Improve sales volume to maintain good WC.
  • Maintain a credit profile by paying all the debts within a given time so that it may not affect the WC and goodwill.
  • Maintain account receivables by receiving all the payments from clients within a given time.
  • Always concerned about operating expenses and the operating cycle of the company.
  • Proper utilization of WC with fixed assets, when fixed assets contain fixed expenses.
  • Always make advanced business contingency plans for maintaining working capital.
  • More WC invests in business to grow, it will affect business productivity.
  • Always should have enough working capital to meet all legal obligations and business liability so that companies never face financial issues in the future.

While adjusting the daily business activities, management needs to use it very effectively without balancing the rules like charge depreciation on fixed assets and interest on borrowed capital by which companies cannot face financial crises and maintain the WC.

Working capital management needs to maintain relations with suppliers and customers so that companies never face a shortage of WC for upcoming projects, which may have a bad impact on sales and revenue.

How is calculated working capital from the balance sheet?

From the balance sheet, WC is calculated to get the number of current liabilities from the current assets, it is a normal formula to calculate WC. 

Working Capital (WC)= Current assets (CA) – Current liabilities (CL)

Kinds of working capital

  • Gross working capital
  • Net working capital

Gross WC

Gross WC refers to the amount which is invested in current assets for continuity of business growth. WC depends on current assets, if the sale of current assets is good it improves the WC and less need for WC.

On the other hand, if the sale of current assets does not generate good revenue it does not improve the WC and more need for WC.

By the way, current assets are the assets that are consumed and get paid within one year, that’s why it has a good impact on WC.

Net WC

Net working capital refers to the amount which is obtained from the difference between current assets and current liabilities. It shows the liquidation of the company and represents the condition of working capital.

Net WC obtains positive and negative impacts from the balance sheet. Positive WC shows the amount of current assets is more than the number of current liabilities. Due to the inclination of current assets, it also increases WC.

Positive WC = CA > CL

On the other hand, Negative WC shows the amount of current assets is less than the number of current liabilities. Due to the declination of current assets, it also declines WC.

Negative WC = CA < CL.

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